Departure: Formia - Caserta - Nola
What is fascinating of Pompeii and makes it, from the point of view of the historical and artistic heritage, a unique place in the world and' the possibility to reconstruct, step by step, along the cobbled streets of basalt lava, the daily life of the inhabitants of a city that a catastrophic event like the eruption of Vesuvius, has made immortal. The heart of the town, the centre of all economic activities, commercial and political, and the meeting point for excellence, the "piazza" of pompeii, was the Forum. In this vast space, surrounded by a double colonnade, and adorned with statues of bronze and marble, of which there are pedestals, which were located all the main public buildings.From the Basilica, where justice was administered, at the headquarters of the diumviri; the decurions of the building, who governed the city, to the Comitium intended the voting of the magistrates, the italic Temple of Jupiter with that of Apollo and the numerous other sacred buildings dedicated to various gods scattered around the city, bore witness to the cult of the religion of the people of pompeii adorn their homes with altars, called larari. But this large open space, rectangular 38 m. x 142 was also the trade. In the Macellum, a covered market built in the imperial age, have been found fruit stones, cereals, and fish bones, because here, selling the products of the earth, as well as the meat and vegetables.The agriculture thanks to the fertile lands, prospered: the gardens of pompeii were famous for the vegetables, the vines, the olives, the honey and spelt, a variety of durum wheat that allowed two crops a year.The building of Eumachia priestess of Venus, the headquarters of the guild of the Fullones (lavandai, dyers and manufacturers of cloths), it was intended to auction the wool, clothes and other articles of clothing. The business address of the economy of pompeii and accentuated after the earthquake of the 62 d.C. Along the via dell'abbondanza, one of the streets that crossed the city from east to west, followed the thermopolia like Asellina, for the dispensing of hot and cold drinks, the caupone taverns and restaurants, the dry cleaners or fulloniche as that of Stofano, where the impluvium, for collecting water, had been turned into a tub to wash the clothes that were then pressed with the feet from the workers and bleached with urine. Even a grand villa like the one of Giulia Felice, in part, was destined to restaurants and shops.Next to the bakeries, where the grinders conical stone to produce flour and bread were operated by mules or slaves, to the selling points of garum, the delicious sauce and dried fish made with tuna eels, and mackerel, were scattered throughout the city the shops of artisans of iron, ceramics, and goldsmiths. Every pompeian, depending on its possibilities, sought to carve out a little space for leisure. In the most frequented places of the city stood the baths: those of the Forum, the Central and the Ability, very important in the daily life of the city.These buildings, divided into sections for male and female, and included the caldarium (hot bath), the tepidarium (lukewarm bath), and the firigidarium (cold bath) and, in the cinemas at the time, rich of plasters, we proceeded to the massage and beauty treatments. The care of the body was completed in the gyms where they were practising sporting activities, such as, for example, in the grandiose building of the imperial era of the Big Gym: big casts of roots testify to the existence of the plane-trees shading the whole area.The stage shows were an event not to be missed. In the great Theatre (200-150.C.), with a capacity of 5,000 spectators, of which there are a few steps of the cavea and the scene with niches and shrines, represented the classic shows, comedies, or tragedies; while in the little Theatre, opened, built after the 1'80 in.C., the staircase is fully preserved and housed 1000 spectators, there were the auditions and musical performances of mimi. In the grandiose Amphitheatre of elliptical form, always 80.C., with a capacity of 12000 people, a place of seguitissimi games between the gladiators.But it is in private homes that the people of pompeii were concentrated and their taste for the architecture, the gardens, the frescoes. From the most simple of the italic era (IV and III century. a.C.), with the atrium, the roof with the compluvium for the gathering of the waters into the basin below, the impluvium, the cubicola or lodging rooms and the tablinium, a meeting place for the family at the bottom of the atrium, and behind the hartus, you pass in the course of the years, buildings more complex in which you multiply the atria, peristyles and gardens, and placing the pictorial decoration from the warm shades and bright like the famous pompeian red, with mythological subjects, heroic, religious, erotic or fantastic.Wonderful examples of this are represented by the frescoes of the House of the Vettii, among which are the Cupids that document the various craft activities; from the splendid Venus in the shell of the House of Venus or by the mysterious cycle of frescoes of the Villa of the Mysteries, dedicated to the worship of Dionysus, of 3 m. x 17, that is one of the most magnificent pictorial representations of antiquity. And then what to say about the art of bronze sculpture that has one of his famous example in the Faun dancing in the eponymous House, love the tableware and the silverware confirmed by the discovery of 115 pieces of silver in the House of Menander.In the gardens where the people of pompeii loved to have lunch on the triclini during the summer, a great deal of the fountains, such as those in the polychrome mosaics of the House of the big fountain, and small, thanks also to the possibility to take advantage of the water current, to the credit of the pipes of lead that supplied the whole city and which caused not a few problems of toxicity to the pompeians.The mosaics complemented admirably the decoration of the houses: from the most simple earthenware, tiles in black and white with geometric motifs such as the Cave canem in the House of the tragic poet, with the true and own works of art with the widest range of colours, as the Battle of Issus, found in the House of the Faun, and today the National Museum of Naples, which portrays Alexander the great against Darius.
Naples, city of art, opens in the shape of an amphitheatre on the sea and is delimited from the Vesuvio, Mounts of the coast and islands of Capri, Ischia and Procida, and Capo Miseno. At the center of the Mediterranean, the capital of the Campania Region and "Capital" of southern Italy, Naples today covers an area of 117,27 Kmq with a population of about 1.020.120 inhabitants. His story is now proven; the first colonization of the area dates back to the IX.C., almost 3000 years ago when the "merchants and travellers anatolici and achei leaned over in the gulf to head towards the markets of mining of the north Tyrrhenian sea", and founded Partenope in the area which includes the isle of Megaride (the present-day Castel dell'ovo) and the Mount Echia Promontory (the present-day Monte di dio and Pizzofalcone). Subsequently, after the wars, Partenope was abandoned and took the name of "Palepolis"(old city). In 475 d.C. thanks to the inhabitants of Cuma was founded Neapolis (new city) in the eastern part of the original city. Neapolis was built according to a plan called Ippodamea, called "per strigas", a network of roads placed in the orthogonal mode that are still visible in the modern city.